Kerim, the Coastal Area from Tiracol southwards is characterized by
stable Sand Dunes in its pristine form. The fore and mid shore dunes
are not so prominent. The hind shore is well stabilized with a thick
plantation of Casuarina.Arambol (Harmal) has a mixed shore. The sandy
shore has very well developed fore and mid dunes and there are well
vegetated with plant of Spinifex. The hind shore has patches of Clerodendron
and Pandanus plants. Most of the hind shore otherwise is occupied with
shacks and small stalls. A sweet water body is located adjacent to the
beach at the base of a hill.
beach also has long stretch of sand shore with mature dunes and well-protected
sand dune vegetation. Here one can see clearly three different types
of dunes: the Embryonic Dunes, Mid Shore Dune and Mature Backshore Dunes.
The entire coastal stretch is protected by continuous 5-6m high sand
dunes with dune vegetation. Some of the sand dunes are shifting in nature
as can be observed in Mandrem where new dunes, presently low in height,
are being formed, this makes the area prograding coast.
has a mixed shore with sandy and rocky beach. Even though there is lots
of tourist activities going on here the coastal vegetation is well protected.
has a good sandy shore with well-developed dune system. A long strip,
which terminates at the mouth of river Chapora is marked by extensive
rows of sand dunes with dune vegetation being more pronounced in the
southern part. The coastal stretch is thickly populated by coconut trees.
The hind dunes are not well stabilized but the embryonic and mid shore
zone is very prominent.
the Chapora fort, and especially at Vagator, low sand dunes are common
over a limited stretch. Dune vegetation with coconut trees is also seen.
The southern part of Vagator comprises a rocky coast with some sandy pockets.Similarly,
at Anjuna, south of the main tourist point, there are extensive sand dunes
with vegetal cover along the coast. Many dunes are found to be degraded
and altered. Coastal erosive processes, as evidenced by chaotic strandlines,
are observed at several places along the shoreline in this sector.
Baga Calangute stretch consists of sand dunes, with diverse dune
vegetation. A large number of dunes are severely altered and some razed,
leveled and eliminated as this belt is extensively and haphazardly built
up. At Calangute, although this zone is the main point where tourists
converge, sand dunes, with dune vegetation and casuarinas, in various
stages of degradation are found north and south of the tourist hostel.
The Calangute Sinquerim stretch up to the Aguada headland is marked by
a continuous chain of 5 6 m high sand dunes with diverse dune and
vegetation and coconut trees.
Vagator to Sinquerim had very good sandy shore with prominent dune systems.
But due to unplanned tourism activities most of the dune systems along
with the vegetation is lost.
certain spots away from the popular beach sites some green cover is
still observed but no dune system as such presently exists. Most affected
beaches are Anjuna, Baga, Calangute and Candolim.
Miramar (Mandovi estuary)
prominent sand dune belt is found backing the Caranzalem Miramar
beach. New dunes, presently low in height and capped by vegetation, are
in the process of formation along the upper reaches of Miramar
Caranzalem beach; it terminates against the wooded hill slopes of Cabo
promontory. However, sand dunes are progressively being destroyed. At
Campal, due to severe erosion, the primitive beach no longer exists, except
for a small portion near Panjim city. Instead, a sea wall, almost 2 km
long, has virtually replaced the beach; this concrete / stone wall is
placed in the intertidal zone. The opposite Nerul (Coco) protected beach
does not show any significant dunes.
Miramar Caranzalem strip is the most prominent dune belt within
the estuaries of Goa. This strip mostly consists of several pocket beaches
backed by wooded hill slopes, now in various stages of degradation (Dona
Paula). Notable sandy beaches are found at Vainguinim, Odxel, Bambolim,
and particularly at Siridao where dunes are low. The opposite side of
the estuary is generally devoid of beaches except the sandy portion at
sea front comprises rocky headlands, sparsely wooded, with only two
major beaches: the one at Baina is severely degraded whereas the one
at Bogmalo, lined by dense coconut trees, is more natural. Here, low
sand dunes are present but some of them are obliterated. To the south,
the coast is mostly rocky (Chicolna, Dabolim) with a few pocket beaches
and secluded cover such as the one at Hollant.
linear stretch with a very wide beach is backed by the largest and the
longest strip of sand dunes of the entire coastal zone of Goa.
Velsao, the coastal area is characterized by thick coconut plantations;
sand dunes are low. Most of the shoreline is under threat of erosive processes
as evidenced by eroded berms and uprooted trees. The Cansaulim
Arossim part consists of very prominent 6 to 8 m high vegetated sand dunes.
Many dunes have been leveled. The Utorda Majorda Gonsua
Betalbatim coastal zone is marked by long strips of sand dunes,
some as high as 8 m, with associated vegetation. Coconut plantations are
prominent. At several places in this stretch, sand dunes have been flattened
and obliterated. Severe beach erosion is observed near Majorda beach resort.
At Colva, sand dunes, 5 to 6 m in height, with dune vegetation and coconut
plantations are still seen on either side of the main beach point, which
has turned into a crowded area. A small seasonal lagoon along the beach
is an annual hydrodynamic feature at Colva. The Sernabatim Benualim
Varca Cavelossim Mobor coast is the most prolific
as it is packed by protective sand dunes, varying in elevation from
3 to 10 m (Sriram and Prasad, 1988), with associated vegetation including
luxuriant Casuarina plantations as in Varca. Here, several dunes have
been flattened and even removed. A similar situation is observed at
Cavelosim and particularly Mobor where sand dunes are severely damaged.
Large dune areas have been razed. Sand extraction is rampant in the
entire stretch. Several new coast perpendicular roads have been built
during the last few years. The stretch from Velsao upto Mobor peninsula,
characterized by the most majestic sand dunes, is the most exquisite
dune belt of the entire coastal zone of Goa.
Talpona river mouth area comprises a unique ecosystem with prominent
sand dunes and associated Casuarina vegetation along the northern sea
front, a luxuriant growth of mangroves within the estuary and a headland
with a thick forest cover in the south. The entire belt is characterized
by majestic sand dunes, some as high as 6 8 m. At some places,
close to the existing parallel road, high dunes have been blatantly
razed and obliterated.
Palolem and Galgibag have a very good shore with Casuarina trees too
close to the fore shore and the regenerating fore dunes. Loliem and
Polem have small strips of sandy beach very close to local habitation.